Everyone has the right to access information on the Internet. All information, including scientific and social research, produced with the support of public funds, should be freely available to all, including on the Internet.
The Internet offers new opportunities to access information, and for governments to communicate with people, through the use of open data. Open data and new forms of online consultation can empower people to take a more active part in public affairs. Data and information held by governments should be made publicly accessible, including being released proactively and routinely, except where legitimate grounds for restricting access comply with the rule of law, including relevant freedom of information legislation. Public authorities and private bodies which perform public functions, provide public services or utilise public funds have a duty to collect and maintain information on their operations and activities on behalf of their population. They also have an obligation to respect minimum standards in relation to the management of this information to ensure that it may easily be made accessible to all. States and relevant non-state actors should demonstrate good practices in the management of data. The use and re-use of government-held data and information should be available free of charge wherever practical. If not, pricing should be transparent, reasonable, the same for all users, and not designed as a barrier to the use or re-use of the data. Copyrighted materials held by public bodies should be licensed for re-use in accordance with relevant access to information laws and licensing frameworks. The existing obligation on public bodies to share all information produced with the support of public funds, subject only to clearly defined rules set out in law, as established by the Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression in Africa, shall extend to the proactive release of such information on the Internet in openly licensed, freely re-useable formats.
The report presents the findings of a study on what governments are doing to inhibit citizens’ access to ICT, for example content blocks, censorship, filtering, infrastructure control, law-making, court cases; how governments are using ICT activity and data to monitor citizens; and how government bodies and functionaries are using propaganda, impersonation, threats, cloning, and other tactics to shape online conte
This research was carried out by the Collaboration on International ICT Policy for East and Southern Africa (CIPESA) as part of the OpenNet Africa initiative (www.opennetafrica.org), which monitors and promotes Internet freedom in Africa.